تأثیر بارش‌های متغیر انتهای فصل، آبیاری تکمیلی و همزیستی میکوریزایی بر عملکرد و کیفیت (علوفه و دانه) عدس دیم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه-ایران

2 گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه ، ارومیه-ایران.

3 دانشگاه ارومیه، دانشکده کشاورزی، گروه زراعت

چکیده

پایان متغیر بارش‌های بهاره در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک، عملکرد عدس را در کشت دیم تحت تأثیر قرار می‌دهد. روش‌هایی مانند تقویت روابط میکوریزایی و آبیاری تکمیلی می‌توانند بخشی از کاهش عملکرد ناشی از کمبود آب را جبران نمایند. این آزمایش دوساله به صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال‌های 1393و 1394 در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی آذربایجان غربی بر روی عدس رقم زیبا انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل زمان پایان بارندگی (20 اردیبهشت، 3 خرداد و 17 خرداد)، همزیستی قارچ (شاهد و قارچ گونه Glomus intraradices) و آبیاری (دیم و یک نوبت آبیاری تکمیلی) بودند. کیفیت علوفه (فسفر، کلسیم و پروتئین) و دانه (فسفر) عدس میکوریزایی در شرایط آبیاری تکمیلی نسبت به کشت دیم بهبود یافت. در گیاهان غیرمیکوریزایی با ادامه بارش تا 17 خرداد عملکرد دانه در هر دو شرایط کشت دیم (10 درصد) و آبیاری تکمیلی (15 درصد) نسبت به پایان زودهنگام بارندگی (20 اردیبهشت) افزایش پیدا کرد. این افزایش عملکرد دانه برای گیاهان میکوریزایی دیم و آبیاری شده 7 درصد بود که نشاندهنده کاهش کمتر عملکرد در گیاهان میکوریزایی است. در هر دو سیستم کاشت، گیاهان میکوریزایی عملکرد علوفه بالاتری داشتند. در این ارتباط بیشترین مقدار تولید علوفه (98/1072 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در گیاهان میکوریزایی آبیاری شده، و بیشترین عملکرد دانه (96/472 کیلوگرم در هکتار) از گیاهان میکوریزایی آبیاری شده در شرایط ادامه بارندگی تا 17 خرداد به‌د‌ست آمدند. به طور کلی، آبیاری تکمیلی روند افزایشی عملکرد علوفه عدس را در هر سه شرایط قطع بارندگی نسبت به دیم بهبود بخشید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


AACC (American Association of Cereal Chemists). 2000. 10th Edition. Adapted from Method, 10-38.
Abdel Rahman, A.A., Shalaby, A.F., and Monayeri, M.O.E.I. 1971. Effect of moisture stress on metabolic products and ions accumulation. Plant and Soil, 34(1): 65-90.
Alam, S.M. 1999. Nutrition uptake by plants under stress condition. pp: 285-315. In: Handbook of plant and crop stress. Second Edition, Revised and Expanded Pessaraki, M., Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Aliasgharzad, N., Bolandnazar, S., Neyeshabouri, M., and Chaparzadeh, N. 2009. Impact of soil sterilization and irrigation intervals on P and K acquisition by mycorrhizal onion (Allium cepa L.). Biologia, 64(3): 512-515.
AL-Karaki, G., McMichael, B., and John, Z. 2004. Field response of wheat to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and drought stress. Mycorrhiza, 14(4): 263-269.
Amirabadi, M., Rejali, F., Ardakani, M. R., and Borji, M. 2010. Effect of aztobacter and mycorrhiza on nutrients uptake by zea on different level of phosphorous. Water and Soil Researches, 23(1): 107-115. (In Persian with English Summary).
Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 2005. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC, Vol. II. Association of Official Analytical Chemist, 18th Edition, Washington, DC. Rating, 1-4.
Behtari, B., Dabbagh Mohamadi Nasab, A., Ghasemi Golezani, K., Zehtab Salmasi, S., and Tourchi, M. 2008. Effect of water deficit on yield and yield components of two soybean varieties. Journal of Agricultural Science, 18(3): 125-137. (In Persian with English Summary).
Benami, A., and Ofen, A. 1984. Irrigation engineering-sprinkler, trickle and surface irrigation: principles, design and agricultural practices. Agricultural Water Management, 9(3): 263-264.
Copetta, A., Lingua, G., and Berta, G. 2006. Effects of three AM fungi on growth, distribution of glandular hairs and essential oil production in Ocimum basilicum L. var. Genovese. Mycorrhiza, 16(7): 485-494.
Faisal, E.A., Samia, O.Y., and Elsiddig, A.E.E. 2000. Effects of mycorrhizal inoculation and phosphorus application on the nodulation, mycorrhizal infection and yield components of faba bean grown under two different watering regimes. University of Khartoum. Journal of Agricutural Sciences, 8(2): 107-116.
Fanaei, H.R., Galavi, M., Kafi, M., and Ghanbari Bonjar, A. 2009. Amelioration of water stress by potassium fertilizer in two oil seed species. International Journal of Plant Production, 3(2): 41-54.
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 2012. Biodiversity: Agricultural biodiversity in FAO.
Garg, N., and Chandel, S. 2011. Effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on growth, nitrogen fixation and nutrient uptake in Cicer arietinum (L.) under salt stress. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 35(2): 205-214.
George, E., Romheld, V., and Marschner, H. 1994. Contribution of mycorrhizal fungi to micronutrient uptake by plants. In: Manthey JA, Crowley DE, Luster DG, eds. Boca Raton, FL, USA: Lewis Publishers, Biochemistry of metal micronutrients in the rhizosphere, 93-109.
Giri, B., and Mukerji, K.G. 2004. Mycorrhizal inoculant alleviates salt stress in Sesbania aegyptiaca and Sesbania grandiflora under field condition: evidence for reduced sodium and improved magnesium uptake. Mycorrhiza, 14: 307-312.
Habibzadeh, Y., and Abedi, M. 2014. The effects of arbuscular micorrhizal fungi on morphological characteristics and grain yield of Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) plants under water deficit stress. Peak Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2(1): 9-14.
Habibzadeh, Y., Jalilian, J., Eivazy, A., Tayeferezai, H., Zardoshti, M.R., and Pirzad, A. 2013. Effect of arboscular mycorrhiza on water use efficiency and grain yield of mungbean under water Stress conditions. Journal of Agronomy, 100: 38-48. (In Persian with English Summary).
Hassani, A., and Omidbeighi, R. 2002. Effects of water stress on some morphological, physiological and metabolical characteristics of basil (Ocimum basilicum). Journal of Agricultural Knowledge, 12(3): 47-59.
Hefnawy, T.H. 2011. Effect of processing methods on nutritional composition and anti-nutritional factors in lentils (Lens culinaris). Annals of Agricultural Sciences, 56(2): 57-61.
Hosseini, F.S. 2011. Effect of supplemental irrigation in different phonological stages on growth characteristics, yield components and performance of three Lentil cultivars (Lens culinaris Medik). MSc Dissertation, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary).
Hosseini, F.S., Nezami, A., Parsa, M., and Haji Mohammadnia Galibaf, K. 2011. Effect of supplemental irrigation on yield and yield components of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) weather in Mashhad. Iranian Journal of Water and Soil, 25 (3): 625-633. (In Persian with English Summary).
Hosseini, F.S., Nezami, A., Parsa, M., and Hajmohammadnia Ghalibaf, K. 2016. Effects of supplementary irrigation at phenological stages on some growth indices of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) cultivars in Mashhad region. Iranian Journal of Pulses Research, 7(1): 105-120. (In Persian with English Summary).
Jacobson, K.M. 1997. Moisture and substrate stability determine VA-mycorrhizal fungal community distribution and structure in an arid grassland. Journal of Arid Environmenst, 35(1): 59-75.
Jaderlund, L., Arthurson, V., Grandhall, U., and Jansson, J.K. 2008. Specific interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting bacteria: as revealed by different combinations. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 287(2): 174-180.
Jalilian, J., Amirnia, R., Gholinezhad, E., and Abbas Zadeh, S. 2016. The effect of supplemental irrigation and seed priming on seed yield, yield components and some characteristics of vetch. Agricultural Crop Management (Journal of Agriculture), 18(3): 625-637. (In Persian with English Summary).
Jalilian, J., and Heydarzadeh, S. 2016. Effect of cover crops, organic and chemical fertilizer on the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius). Journal of Agricultural Science, 25(4): 71-85. (In Persian with English Summary).
Kafi, M., Borzoee, A., Salehi, M., Kamandi, A., Masoumi, A., and Nabati, J. 2010. Physiology of environmental stress in plant. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad publication, p: 502. (In Persian).
Kuchenbuch, R., Claassen, N., and Jungk, A. 1986. Potassium availability in relation to soil moisture, Plant and Soil, 95(2): 221-231.
Levitt, J. 1980. Responses of plants to environmental stress, Academic Press, New York. 2: 497.
Mirfakhraei, N., Moghaddam, M., Aharizad, S., and Razbane Haghigi, A. 2009. Evaluation of Vicia dasycarpa genotypes under drought stress conditions. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Production Science, 2(1): 133-141. (In Persian with English Summary).
Ortas, I. 2010. Effect of mycorrhiza application on plant growth and nutrient uptake in cucumber production under Field conditions. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 8(1): 116-122.
Ortas, I., Sari, N., Akpinar, C., and Yetisir, H. 2011. Screening mycorrhizae species for plant growth, P and Zn uptake in pepper seedling grown under greenhouse conditions. Scientia Horticulturae, 128: 92-98.
Oweis, T., Hachum, A., and Pala, M. 2004. Lentil production under supplemental irrigation in a Mediterranean environment. Agricultural Water Management. 68: 251-265.
Oweis, T., and Hachum, A. 2006. Water harvesting and supplemental irrigation for improved water productivity of dry farming systems in West Asia and North Africa. Agricultural Water Management, 80: 57-73.
Pirzad, A., Shakiba, M.R., Zehtab-Salmasi, S., Mohammadi, S.A., Darvishzadeh, R., and Samadi, A. 2011. Effect of water stress on leaf relative water content, chlorophyll, proline and soluble carbohydrates in Matricaria chamomilla L. Journal of Medicinal Planst Research, 5(12): 2483-2488.
Pirzad, A., Darvishzadeh, R., Bernousi, I., Hassani, A., and Sivritepe, N. 2012. Influence of water deficit on iron and zinc uptake by Matricaria chamomilla L. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, 72(2): 232-236.
Rahbari, A., Sinaki, J.M., and Zarei, M. 2015. Effects of Phosphate fertilizer and less irrigation on grain yield of the forage millet. Journal of Agronomy Sciences, 5(10): 27-38.
Rezaeyan Zadeh, E., Parsa, M., Ganjali, A., and Nezami, A. 2011. Responses of yield and yield components of chickpea cultivars (Cicer arietinum L.) to supplemental irrigation in different Phenology stages. Journal of Water and Soil, 25(5): 1085-1095. (In Persian with English Summary).
Sajedi, N.A., and Rejali, F. 2011. Effects of water stress, the use of mycorrhizal inoculation on the absorption of micronutrients in corn. Iranian Journal of Soil Research, 25(2): 83-92. (In Persian with English Summary).
Shamsi, K., Kobraee, S., and Haghparast, R. 2010. Drought stress mitigation using supplemental irrigation in rainfed chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties in Kermanshah, Iran. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(27): 4197-4203.
Siddique, K.H. M., and Sedgley, R.H. 1986. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) a potential grain legume for south-western Australia: Seasonal growth and yield. Australian Journal of Agricultural Reseaech, 37: 245-261.
Tadeusz, Z., Agnieszka, K.K., and Rzej, O. 2013. Effect of Rhizobium inoculation of seeds and foliIar fertilization on productivity of pisum sativum L. Acta Agrobotanica, 66(2) 71-78.
Turner, N.C. 2003. Adaptation to drought: lessons from studies with chickpea. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology, 11-17.
Wu, Q.S., and Xia, R.X. 2006. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi influence growth, osmotic adjustment and photosynthesis of citrus under well-watered and water stress conditions. Jounal of Plant Physiology, 163: 417-425.