تأثیر قارچ مایکوریزا و نانو اکسید روی بر عملکرد، تجمع ماده خشک، سرعت و طول دوره پر شدن دانه گندم در شرایط شوری خاک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 اربیل دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی دانشکده کشاورزی گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات

2 دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

چکیده

به منظور مطالعه اثر مایکوریزا و نانو اکسید روی بر عملکرد، تجمع ماده خشک، سرعت و طول دوره پر شدن دانه گندم در شرایط شوری خاک، آزمایش فاکتوریلی با طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در دانشکده علوم کشاورزی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی اجرا شد. فاکتورهای مورد بررسی شامل شوری خاک در سه سطح (عدم اعمال شوری، شوری40 و80 میلی‌مولار با نمک NaCl)، کاربرد مایکوریزا در دو سطح (عدم کاربرد و کاربرد میکوریزا) و محلول‌پاشی با نانو اکسید روی در سه سطح (عدم مصرف، مصرف 4/0 و 8/0 گرم در لیتر) بودند. مقایسه میانگین‌ها نشان داد بالاترین عملکرد (45/0 گرم در بوته)، سرعت پر شدن دانه (0022/0 گرم در روز)، طول دوره پر شدن (28 روز)، دوره موثر پر شدن دانه (55/28 روز) و حداکثر وزن دانه (0606/0 گرم) به ترکیب تیماری‌ کاربرد میکوریز، محلول‌پاشی 8/0 گرم در لیتر نانو اکسید روی و عدم اعمال شوری به‌دست آمد. اعمال شوری80 میلی‌مولار، عملکرد دانه را 21 درصد کاهش داد و محلول‌پاشی بالاترین سطح نانو اکسید روی و کاربرد مایکوریزا 66 درصد از این کاهش عملکرد را جبران کرد. از این رو می‌توان پیشنهاد نمود که به منظور افزایش عملکرد، طول دوره و دوره موثر پر شدن دانه و برخی دیگر از شاخص های رشدی مانند توده زنده کل در شرایط شوری، کاربرد میکوریز و محلول پاشی با نانواکسید روی به کار برده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


Abdel-Fattah, G. M. and Asrar, A. A. 2012. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal application to improve growth and tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown in saline soil. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 34: 267-277.
Abid, M., Qayyum, A., Dasti, A.A. and Abdilwajid, R. 2001. Effect of salinity and SAR of irrigation water on yield, physiological growth parameters of maize and properties of the soil. Journal Research, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan. 12) 1(: 26-33.
Baniabbass, Z., Zamani, G. and Sayyari, M. 2012. Effect of drought stress and zinc sulfate on the yield and some physiological characteristics of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Environmental Biology, 6: 518-525.
Ben Ghnaya, A. 2007. Morphological and physiological characteristics of rapeseed plants regenerated in vitro from thin cell layers in the presence of zinc. Plant Biology, 3:728-734.
Borrás, L., Slafer, G.A. and Otegui, M.E. 2004. Seed dry weight response to source-sink manipulations in wheat, maize and soybean: A quantitative reappraisal. Field Crops Research, 86:131-146.
Cakmak, I. 2008. Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: Agronomic or genetic biofortification? Plant and Soil. 302:1-17.
Daguid, S. D. and Brule-Bable, A.L. 1994. Rate and duration of grain filling in five spring wheat. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 74:681-686.
Devarajan, R. and Palaniappan, S.D. 1995. Zinc and molybdenum on yield and nutrition of soybean. Madras Agricultural Journal, 82.188-189.
Dodd, I. C. and Perez-Alfocea, F. 2012. Microbial amelioration of crop salinity stress. Journal of Experimental Botany, 63 )9(: 3415-3428.
El-bassiouny, H.S. 2005. Effect of nicotinamide and tryptophan on wheat. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 7)4(:653-659.
Ellis, H. R. and Pieta-Filho, C. 1992. The development of seed quality in spring and winter cultivars of barely and wheat. Seed Science, 2:19-25.
Feng, G., Zhang, F. S., Li, X. L., Tian, C. Y., Tang, C. and Rengel, Z. 2002. Improved tolerance of maize plants to salt stress by arbuscular mycorrhiza is related to higher accumulation of soluble sugars in roots. Mycorrhiza. 12:185-190.
Gianinazzi, S. Schuepp, H. Barea, J.M. and Haselwandter, K. 2001. Mycorrhizal technology in agriculture: from genes to bioproducts. Birkhauser, Basel. ISBN: 376436858. Also in: Mycorrhiza. 13: 53-54. Lovato, P. Book Review.
Gollagi, S.G., Hiremath, S.M. and Chetti, M.B. 2009. Effects of growth regulator and nutrients on growth parameters and yield in chilli cv. Byadagi Kaddi. International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 5 )1(:123-125.
Hagh Bahari, M. and Seyed Sharifi, R. 2014. Effects of seed inoculation with growth promoting bacteria (PGPR) on yield, rate and grain filling at various levels of soil salinity. Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences, 61:65-75. (In Persian with Englisgh Summary).
Hagh Bahari, M. and Seyed Sharifi, R. 2014. Influence of soil salinity and seed inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on sodium and potassium rates, stomatal conductance and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal of Soil Biology. 1(2): 107-122. (In Persian with Englisgh Summary).
Hammer, G., Dong, Z., McLean, G., Doherty, A., Messina, C., Schussler, J., Zinselmeier, C., Pszkiewicz, S. and Cooper, M. 2009. Can changes in canopy and/or root systemarchitecture explain historical maize yield trends in U.S. Corn Belt? Crop Science, 49: 299-312.
Hemantaranjan, A. and Grag, O. K. 1988. Iron and zinc fertilization with reference to the grain quality of Triticum aestiuvm L. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 11 )6-11(:1439-1450.
Karaman, M.R. Brohi, A.R., Inal, A. and Taban, S. 1999. Effect of iron and zinc applications on growth and mineral nutrient concentrations of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in artificial siltation soils. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 23) 2(:341-348.
Khalvati, M.A., Mozafar, A. and Schmidhalter, U. 2005. Quantification of water uptake by arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae and its significance for leaf growth, water relations, and gas exchange of barley subjected to drought stress. Plant Biology. Stuttgart. 7:706-712.
Kumar, V, Behl, R.K. and Narula, N. 2001. Establishment of phosphate solubilizing strains of Azotobacter chroococcum in rhizosphere and their effect on wheat under greenhouse conditions. Microbiological Research, 156: 87-93.
Kumari, S.L. and Valarmathi, G. 1998. Relationship between grain yield grain filling rate and duration of grain filling in rice. Madras Agricultural Journal, 85:210-211.
Marschner, H. 1984. Function of mineral nutrients: micronutrients. In: Mineral nutrition of higher plants, Acad Press. NewYork, Pp: pp: 269-300.
Martyniak, L., Dabrowska-Zielnska, K., Szymczyk, R. and Gruszczynska, M. 2007. Validation of satellite-derived soil-vegetation indices for prognosis of spring cereals yield reduction under drought conditions—case study from central-western Poland. Advances in Space Research. 39: 67-72.
Mass, E.V. and Grieve, C.M. 1990. Spike and leaf development in salt stressed wheat. Crop Science, 30:1309-1313.
Murkovic, M., Hillebrand, A., Winker, H. and Pfannhauser, W. 1996. Variability of vitamin E content in pumpkin seeds (Cucurbitapepo L.). Z. Lebensm Unters Forsch. 202:275-278.
Panwar, J.D.S. 1991. Effect of VAM and Azospirillum brasilenseon photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism and grain yield in wheat. Indian. Journal of Plant Physiology, 34:357-361.
Pessarakli, M. 1999. Hand book of plant and crop stress. 2nd ed. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.
Prasad, T.N., Sudhakar, P., Sreenivasulu,Y., Latha, P., Munaswamy, V., Raja Reddy, K., Sreeprasad, T. S. and Sajanlal, P. R. 2012. Effect of nanoscale Zinc-oxide particles on the germination, growth and yield of peanut. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 35: 905-927.
Quarrie, S.A. 1979. Genotypic variation in leaf water potential, stomatal conductance and abssisic acid concentration in spring wheat subjected to artificial drought stress. Annals of Botany, 44:323-332.
Rayca, D., Pall, R. and Johri, B.N. 1994. Plant growth stage, fertilizer management and bio-inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria affect the rhizobacterial community structure in rainfed wheat fields.Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 38:1111-1120.
Ronanini, D.R., Savin, R. and Hall, A.J. 2004. Dynamic of fruit growth and oil quality of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) exposed to brief interval of high temperature during grain filling. Field Crops Research, 83:79-90.
Royo, C., Abaza, M., Blanco, R. and Garcı´a del Moral, L. F. 2000. Triticale grain growth and morphometry as affected by drought stress, late sowing and simulated drought stress. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 27:1051-1059.
Sanchez-Blanco, M. J., Ferrandez, T., Navarro, A., Banon, S. and Alarcon, J. J. 2004. Effects of irrigation and air humidity preconditioning on water relations, growth and survival of Rosmarinus officinalis plants during and after transplanting. Journal of Plant Physiology, 161:1133-1142.
Sadras, V.O. and Egli, D.B. 2008. Seed size variation in grain crops: allometric relationships between rate and duration of seed growth. Crop Science, 48:408-416.
Saia, S., Ruisi, P., García-Garrido, J.M., Benítez, E., Amato, G. and Giambalvo, D. 2012. Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance plant nitrogen capture from organic matter added to soil? 17th Nitrogen Workshop. 26-29 June. Wexford, Ireland.
Salehi, M. and Tamaskoni, F. 2008. Effect nanocid at seed treatment on germination and seedling growth of wheat under salinity. Seed Science and Technology, 2:204-209.
Sangtarash, M.H. 2010. Responses of different wheat genotypes to drought stress applied at different growth stages. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 13:114-119.
Seyed Sharifi, R. and Namvar, A. 2015. Biofertilizers in Agronomy. University of Mohaghegh Ardabili press, 282 pp.(In Persian with Englisgh Summary).
Sharma, V., Shukla, R. K., Saxena, N., Parmar, D., Das, M. and Dhawan, A. 2009. DNA damaging potential of zinc oxide nanoparticles in human epidermal cells. Toxicology Letters. 185)3 (:211-218.
Stancheva, I., Dimitrev, I., Kuloyanova, N., Dimitrova, A. and Anyelove, M. 1992. Effect of inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense, photosynthetic enzyme activities and grain yield in maize. Agronomy Journal, 12:319-324.
Stancheva, I., Geneva, M., Zehirov, G., Tsvetkova, G., Hristozkova, M., and Georgiev, G. 2006. Effects of combined inoculation of pea plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Rhizobium on nodule formation and nitrogen fixing activity. General and Applied Plant Physiology, 4:61-66.
Syverud, T.D., Walsh, L. M., Oplinger, E.S. and Kelling, K.A. 1980. Foliar fertilization of soybean (Glycine max L.). Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 11:637-651.
Tsuno, Y., Yamaguchi, T. and Nakano, J. 1994. Potential dry matter production and grain filling process of rice plant from the viewpoint of source-sink relationships and the role of root respiration in its relationship. Agronomy Journal, 47:1-10.
Yilmaz, A., Ekiz, H., Torun, B., Guttekin, I, Karanlik, S., Baggi, S.A. and Cakmak, I. 1997. Effect of different zinc application methods on grain yield and zinc concentration in weat cultivars grown on zinc deficient calcarcous soils. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 20:461-471.
Zozi, T., Steiner, F., Fey, R., Castagnara, D.D. and Seidel, E.P. 2012. Response of wheat to foliar application of zinc. Ciência Rural Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 42(5): 784-787.